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Research 601-602


   Welcome to Research!




    Welcome to our class website…a place where information and support are found for the students enrolled in the Action-Research classes. Here you will find articles to help support your understanding of the action-research process, samples of students’ research work, methods and tools to successfully write a literature review and literature citations.

     Each of these items is to supplement the direct instruction and coaching you receive in our Education 601 face-to-face class sessions. I would suggest you visit the site often as each of you may request a new piece of information of materials; it will be shared with all of you here.  So tab this site and rely on it as a source of information throughout this project.

  Research 601

   Reference Materials

   Accessing the Viterbo Library (Click on documents below)
                Intro to Todd Wehr Memorial Library (PDF)

   Research Paper Examples

  • Barszcz Student Attitudes Towards Read Alouds, May, 09 

  • CookEffects of Word Sorting on Spelling Retention, April, 03

  • Kust: The Benefits of Direct Instruction in Combination with Teacher Read Alouds,  May, 09

  • Nussbaum: The Effects on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitude In Second Graders, May, 09

  • Kempen: Literacy-Enriched Dramatic Play in Kindergarten, May, 09

  • Hougas: Using Manipulatives to Teach Fractions

  • Loeffelholz: Effects of Portfolio Assessment on Reading Skills Development of Second Grade Students

  • Smith:  Methods of Rubric Implementation on Achievement and Student Attitude

   Research 602

    Congratulations on completing your first three chapters of your research project… you are well on your way.  In this area you will find the resources to use in creating chapter 4 and chapter 5.  I would ask that you open each site and attempt the practice options to gain an understanding and comfort in utilizing the tools.  Each of these tools and supporting articles will assist you on a “need-to know” basis and will give you information that we can discuss during our conference session and conference calls.

   Putting your data into a graph: Let a picture tell the story!

     Many of you have the capability of creating graphs from your software package that may be loaded into your personal laptop. Just in case you do not have an option, I did want to share a site that provides methods to create many different types of graphs and is very easy to use: Please select a type of graph that best allows you to present your data in the most straightforward manner. 

   Using the T-test

During our individual conferences we will have the opportunity to “walk through” the use of the STATPAK but I also wanted to allow you to attempt the software before you utilize it with your case data. So, let’s take a make believe collection of data and use the Statistical Data sheets and STATPAK software.

   Information from the Make Believe Classroom

     Number of Students      7

   Individual Test Data (Pre Score/Post Score)

Student A

  Student B 18/21  
  Student C 27/41  
  Student D 33/42  
  Student E 23/31  
  Student F 19/26  
  Student G 17/24  

     Steps To Calculate T-value score

Step 1:

Determine Degrees of Freedom (df)  The degree of freedom is calculated by taking the total number of students in your study and  subtract by one.  In our example we have seven students so, 7-1=6; the df is 6


Step 2:

In our class we established we will use the 0.05 level of confidence for our t-test calculation.  Looking at the T Probability Chart  We will first go down the df column to 6 (remember seven students -1=6, the df value we use), then move horizontally across the row until to come to the intersection of 0.05 and 6 df .  The value that is listed in that box is the level of significance our t-value must meet or exceed for our results to be considered statistically significant.  So as you use our df value and established level of significance (0.05) what is the value we must match or exceed?   Answer: 2.447



Step 3:

Now we have our target  t-value score, go to the STATPAK software click on the t-test non-independent option. You will see on the new screen that there are several tabs, click on enter, upon which an entry box will pop up.  You will begin by entering your pretest data—enter each of the seven students pretest in the X box –one at a time- clicking on OK after each pretest score. When all pretest data is entered you will click on done and then repeat the process but entering post test data in the Y box. After all pretest and post test scores are entered click on calculate. Immediately the analysis results will be posted.   Look at the t-value and note whether it matches or exceeds the level of significance value we had established.



Df = 6

Level of Significance  2.447


t-value =  6.55


With the t-value exceeding the level of significance we can say our treatment was statistically significant---our treatment made a difference.  We will talk about how to write up these findings in your chapter 4 during our conference.  Now, try your data and see what results you acquire!